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北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区

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发表于 2019-7-23 02:05:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区


内容:实景照片

建筑设计负责人:李冀

技术建筑师:任爱东

结构工程师:阳光事务所

设计团队:张慧 廉辉 王静

委托人:北京东方到普文化Beijing Dongfangdaopu Culture Assets operation management Co. Ltd.

图片:17张

摄影师:夏至




缘起Origin
不同于798那些德国精英血统的雄伟工厂,蜗居在美术馆后街的北京胶印厂更像是个工业化的四合院,带着北京胡同的市井气息。几栋不同历史的工业楼房分别建于上世纪60、70、90年代,除了层高稍高并无特别,但四面围合之间,曾经有过幽静的院落。可惜历经半个世纪的风雨之后,原有产业陆续衰落停产,厂区也面目全非。管线老化裸露,闲置厂房被零散杂乱地分割出租,无序加建使整个厂区拥塞填堵,变成了名副其实的大杂院。这次结合戏剧文化功能置换的整体改造行动,期望为衰败的城市肌体注入新的生机。尊重特有的院落历史情感,延展丰富的工业文化厚度,唤醒、激发内在活力,成为改造策略的切入点。

操作 Operation
行动首先从针对性的局部切除入手,对导致整体淤塞的增生部分进行清理:东侧清除临时性私搭乱建,将杂乱的停车移出,留出安静前院;西端拆除粘连在两座主体结构之间的简陋铁皮房,形成后院;进一步清理两侧部分被堵死的胡同,贯通前后联系,让多层次的院落空间和街巷重见天日。

激活/生长/立体街巷 Activation/ Development/ 3-D Streets
一条独特的空间穿行体系,突破原始结构的束缚,引导传统的院落街巷线索自由立体地流动生长。有时从地面庭院纵向迂回攀爬直上屋顶花园;有时以空中飞廊从一片屋面横向跳跃到另一片屋面;也有时果断切入室内或者地下,将阳光、空气和清新的自然引入内部空间。不再有枯燥单一的必经之路,交通动线演变成自由随意的三维游园小径,带动风景、室内外空间的互动。

厂区里原本无法到达、消极而各自孤立的屋面,被游廊全面唤醒,演变为高低错落漂浮空中的花园。每个花园的高度、景观体验、到达方式各不相同,是立体街巷中的流动风景。随处可见的空中花园弥补了地面空间的不足,为每个内部单元都带来了亲近自然的机会,更创造了放松邂逅的交流场所,成为激发创新灵感的源泉。僵化呆滞的空间状态破解之后,共同生长出多样性的丰富环境聚落,是最适合文化创意生态发展的土壤。

文化回归 Cultural Recurrence
多数厂房建于七十年代初期,墙体历经多次临时性的美化涂抹,已层层遮盖不见真容。如今通过一层层打磨,小心翼翼揭去装饰性覆层,让掩埋的历史真相重见天日。文革时期的砖墙裸露出来, 质地不均、施工粗放,但直率地传递着那个特殊时代的气息与记忆。老古董虽不甚完美,却胜过赝品伪饰的光鲜,拥有属于自己的尊严。

旧墙之上一系列的新增介入动作,都被刻意清晰地暴露在人们视线中,不假掩藏。因改造时的各自工艺不同,洞口有些有着刀具锐利的切痕,有的则残留敲凿的印迹、处于残缺与未完成状态。带着磨痕的不同年代老砖墙、紧贴浇注的加固混凝土墙、嵌入的钢梁、简约干净的玻璃,不同时代的工艺与材料界限分明地锚固在一起。如同锔瓷的钢钉,新与旧共同诉说岁月的变迁。
有悖于当前日趋精细的建筑方向,改造中采用了低精细度的材料、工艺和更直接的建造方法。钢材采用原始形状、规格,去除没必要的加工和装饰,以使每块材料的完整与独立性得到尊重。连接构造也尽量简单直接,试图展现出力量与本质的美。耐候钢板随着时间自然地斑驳锈蚀,与周围老砖墙默默对话。新建筑物已经开始融入到整体历史氛围中去,并使厂区深沉的工业气质得以进一步凝聚强化。

无所不在的剧场 Omnipresent Theatre
如果说游廊体系是园区的动脉,那么仓库剧场就是园区里的心脏、活力与魅力的源泉。剧场由危房拆除后原址新建而成,采用工业仓库式的建筑结构、厚重工字钢柱列和锈蚀耐候钢面板,时尚鲜活的戏剧场景与仓库厚重工业空间之间鲜明对比。而当夜幕降临或震撼一幕开启,仓库剧场朝向庭院的墙面将徐徐悬起,内部灯光人气喷涌而出,戏剧与文化生活不再受限于一个固定空间,活力渗透到园区每个角落。前院成为没有边界的露天剧场,巷道成为串场通道,屋顶和游廊变身为空中舞台和看台,老砖房上挑出的露台成为包厢......演员与观众界限消除了,文化与生活的隔阂消失了。整个园区成为无所不在的开放剧场,
进而与更广泛的城市生活融为一体。

译者: 艾比

Origin
Different from the grand factories of elite German descent in 798, Beijing Offset Printing Factory, nestled in the backstreet of an art gallery, is more like an industrialised courtyard with a scent of civil life in Beijing's hutongs. Built in 1960s, 1970s and 1990s respectively, the industrial buildings have different histories. They look nothing special except the higher storey height. But once upon a time, there was a secluded yard boxed in the enclosures. Unfortunately during half century of trials and hardships, the original industries declined and shut down one after another; the factories were also dilapidated day by day almost beyond all recognition. The pipe lines are now ageing and bare; the idle workshops are separated and rent disorderly. The unordered addition jams the whole factory area and makes it a genuine warren. The integral reformation combining drama culture and functional replacement is in the hope of bringing a new vitality to the waste urban body.

Respecting for the specific historical emotions of the courtyard, the hitting-point of the transformation strategy is to extend the accumulation of various industrial cultures, awake and arouse its inner vitality.

Operation
Starting with targeted local excision, the addition part which causes the overall blocking will be cleared: in the east, eliminate the unauthorised temporary buildings and remove the disorder parking to make room for a quiet front yard; in the west, demolish the crude tin room attached between the two major structures to form a backyard; further clean up the blocked hutongs on both sides and link them up from back to front, thus a multi-layered courtyard space and alleys will be brought to light again.

Activation/Development/3D Streets
Breaking through the shackles of original structures, a unique space travelling system is leading the free and stereoscopic flowing growth of the initial traditional yards and alleys: some climb up circuitously from the ground courtyard to the roof garden; some fly crosswise from one house to another to form an air corridor; some straightly break into the room or underground and bring the sunshine, the air and the refreshing nature inside. There will not be only route any more. Traffic moving lines will evolve into irregular three-dimensional garden trails, which brought along interaction between indoor and outdoor space and scenery.

The unreachable and isolated inactive roofs in the factory are totally activated by the verandas and becoming well-proportioned floating hanging gardens. The different heights, landscape experiences and arrival patterns of each garden form a flow of scenery in the stereoscopic alleys. Making up the shortfall of the limited ground space, the hanging gardens everywhere provide opportunity of closing to the nature for every internal unit. Moreover, the communication place for relax and encounter will bring creative inspirations. After breaking the rigid space, the diversity of environmental settlement will grow into the most suitable place for the ecological development of cultural creativity.

Cultural Recurrence
Most of the plants were initiated in the early 1970s. After repeated temporary renewal paintings, the true features of the walls had been covered layer upon layer. Now being polished layer by layer, the decorative cover is carefully removed. Thus the buried historical truth is able to come to light again. Built in the Cultural Revolution period, the brick walls are now exposed with their uneven texture and coarse construction. Meanwhile the flavour and memory of the special times are transmitted frankly. Although not very perfect, the antiques have it all over the fake decorated forgeries and deserve respects for their dignity.

On the old walls, a series of interventions are exposed deliberately without any dissimulation in people's sight. Being renovated with different techniques, some holes have sharp cutting marks and others are rough and unfinished with the remaining trail of chisels. Old brick walls of different ages with scrapes and marks, reinforced concrete walls processed by clinging and casting, embedded steel beams, simple and clean glasses, all these crafts and materials of different eras are distinctively combined together. Just like the steel nails used in staple china art, the new and old are combined to manifest the change of times.

Contrary to the current architectural concept which is becoming finer day by day, materials and techniques with low precision and more direct construction methods are adopted during the renovation. Preserving the original shape and specification of steels, removing all unnecessary processes and decorations, the integrality and independence of every piece of material can be protected. The joint constructions are made as simple and direct as possible to reveal the beauty of power and essence. The weathering steel, naturally mottled and rusted as time goes on, is now talking with the surrounding old brick walls in a whisper. The new buildings have become integrated with the overall historical atmosphere. Therefore the deep industrial temperament of the factory can be further strengthened with its cohesion power.

Omnipresent Theatre
If the veranda system can be considered as the artery of the garden, then the warehouse theatre is the garden's heart, the fountain of vitality and charm. The theatre is newly constructed on the former address of dilapidated buildings. Adopting the architectural structure of industrial warehouse, massive I-column steel and Corten steel panel, the massive industrial space of the warehouse strongly contrasts the fashion and living drama scenes. When the night falls, when a shocking scene opens, the warehouse theatre walls toward the courtyard will be hung up slowly with the internal lighting and popularity gushed out. The drama and cultural life are no longer limited in a fixed space. Vitality is spreading everywhere in the garden.

The front yard becomes an outdoor theatre without boundary; the alleys become joint channels; the roofs and verandas are changed to air stages and stands; the terraces on the old brick houses become boxes. The gap between actors and audiences is eliminated; the estrangement between culture and life is vanishing. The whole garden becomes an omnipresent open theatre and then integrated with the comprehensive city life.




北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区外观图





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区外部图





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区外部图





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区外部图





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区外部局部图





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区图解





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区图解





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区图解





北京胶印厂改造的77文化创意园区图解



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